The recent memoranda of understanding (MOUs) signed between Taiwan and several countries—including the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, and Canada—represent a significant stride in Taiwan’s international presence, particularly in the realm of healthcare. These agreements are not just diplomatic feats; they are strategic steps toward making Taiwan a globally recognized player in health and medical innovation. In a world where health crises transcend national borders, Taiwan’s proactive engagement in health diplomacy is both timely and imperative. This brief will argue that by enhancing its visibility and relevance in global health, Taiwan can significantly increase its international presence, despite the political challenges posed by China’s attempts to isolate it.
Taiwan’s Diplomatic Landscape and the Need for Health Diplomacy
Taiwan’s unique international status, complicated by China’s influence, has often restricted its participation in global affairs, especially in organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). However, health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic have underscored the necessity of inclusive global health frameworks. Taiwan’s remarkable handling of the pandemic, despite its exclusion from the WHO, has highlighted its potential as a valuable contributor to global health.
By focusing on health diplomacy, Taiwan can circumvent some of the political roadblocks it faces. Health is a universal concern, transcending political affiliations and ideologies. Taiwan’s investments in healthcare, medical research, and public health can serve as a platform for international cooperation, enabling it to forge relationships—even with countries that officially adhere to some form of a “One-China Policy” that prevents formal diplomatic relations with both Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
The Strategic Significance of Recent MOUs
Taiwan-Czech MOU: A Model of Democratic Solidarity
In December 2023, Taiwan and the Czech Republic signed an MOU targeting the reconstruction of Ukraine’s primary healthcare system. Critically, the agreement represents a multifaceted approach to international relations, blending health, humanitarianism, and democratic solidarity. This MOU transcends conventional diplomatic engagement, forging a path for Taiwan in the global arena, especially in terms of humanitarian aid and health diplomacy.
The MOU, signed amid the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict, is a beacon of hope for a Ukrainian society ravaged by war. Ambassador Ke Liang-ruey (柯良叡) and David Steinke, representing Taiwan and the Czech Republic respectively, have accomplished far more than merely signing an agreement. Rather, they have laid the groundwork for a significant partnership based on shared democratic values and humanitarian principles. This collaboration is particularly notable considering the geographical and political distances separating Taiwan, the Czech Republic, and Ukraine.
Taiwan Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Tien Chung-kwang‘s (田中光) remarks during the signing highlighted the MOU as a prime example of democratic nations uniting against authoritarian threats. This agreement goes beyond bilateral relations; it is emblematic of the development of a broader coalition of democracies committed to upholding humanitarian principles. Tien’s emphasis on the project reinforced the democratic world’s commitment to supporting Ukraine, demonstrating the potential impact of concerted efforts by like-minded nations.
The MOU also brings to light the economic strengths and technological capabilities of Taiwan. In recognition of this, Czech Envoy for the Reconstruction of Ukraine Tomáš Kopečný and Director of the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Economic Policy Department Marek Svoboda both emphasized Taiwan’s expertise and potential as a technology and medical hub. Such collaboration opens avenues for both the Czech Republic and Ukraine to explore Taiwan’s advancements in medical device industries, potentially leading to broader economic and technological engagement.
The presence of Ukrainian academic Yurii Poita, who provided remarks on behalf of the Ukrainian community in Taiwan, added a poignant touch to the agreement. His gratitude toward Taiwan and the Czech Republic underscored the far-reaching impact of Taiwan’s humanitarian efforts. The fact that Taiwan’s support has resonated with the Ukrainian people, despite geographical distance, is a testament to the island’s commitment to global humanitarian causes.
The MOU’s focus on the eastern part of Ukraine—one of the regions most heavily affected by the war—is emblematic of Taiwan’s targeted approach to healthcare assistance. The Taiwan-Czech collaboration will address key areas like general, surgical, gynecological, and rehabilitation medicine, providing comprehensive support to the war-torn region. This aspect of the MOU highlights Taiwan’s ability to offer specialized medical assistance in crisis situations.
The medical products and solutions required for this project are not just a means to aid Ukraine; they are also a window for Taiwan to showcase its medical standards and capacities on the international stage. This initiative will likely enhance the understanding of Taiwan’s healthcare prowess in Ukraine and other countries, potentially leading to more such collaborations in the future.
This MOU could be the beginning of a long-lasting partnership, opening doors for further cooperation between Taiwan, the Czech Republic, and Ukraine in areas like smart technology, energy, and semiconductors. The potential for more exchanges and interactions could pave the way for Taiwan’s increased participation in international affairs, particularly in sectors where it holds significant expertise.
Image: The signing ceremony for the Taiwan-Czech Republic MOU related to reconstruction assistance for Ukraine’s primary healthcare system, held via video link between Prague and Taipei (December 1, 2023). (Image source: ROC Overseas Community Affairs Council)
UK-Taiwan MOU: Bridging Health and Diplomacy
Signed in July 2023, the MOU signed between the United Kingdom and Taiwan is a landmark achievement in international health diplomacy, particularly for Taiwan. This MOU not only demonstrates Taiwan’s capability to form meaningful partnerships in health-related fields, but also symbolizes its resilience and strategic foresight in navigating complex international relations, especially with countries that maintain official relations with the PRC.
The UK-Taiwan MOU covers a wide array of health-related areas, including pandemic preparedness, digital health, health insurance, mental health, and healthy aging. This comprehensive approach highlights both countries’ deep commitments to addressing both immediate and long-term health challenges. By encompassing such a broad spectrum of health concerns, the MOU set the stage for extensive cooperation, providing a robust platform for both nations to enhance the well-being and welfare of their populations.
The focus on pandemic preparedness and digital health is particularly significant in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis. The world has realized the importance of being prepared for health emergencies, and digital health has emerged as a crucial tool in managing such situations. Taiwan, with its successful handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and its advancements in digital health technology, is in a unique position to contribute significantly to this area of cooperation. This MOU could provide Taiwan with a crucial opportunity to showcase its expertise and share valuable insights with the United Kingdom, thereby fostering a deeper understanding and collaboration between the two.
The MOU established a framework for various collaborative efforts, including information-sharing, exchange programs, joint workshops, and meetings. These initiatives are vital for enhancing cooperation and knowledge exchange, providing opportunities for both nations to learn from each other’s experiences and best practices. Such a structured approach to collaboration ensures that the partnership will yield tangible benefits and foster a closer relationship between the United Kingdom and Taiwan.
Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Taiwan have long been shaped by London’s staunch adherence to its “One-China Policy,” which has historically served as a barrier to UK-Taiwan ties. Despite these diplomatic constraints, the United Kingdom has nevertheless maintained robust unofficial relations with Taiwan, culminating with the signing of the MOU. This health cooperation MOU exemplifies how countries can engage in meaningful collaborations with Taiwan in areas of mutual interest, despite Britain’s formal diplomatic recognition of the PRC.
The signing of this MOU is not just a bilateral achievement, but also a positive precedent for international collaboration in global health. It demonstrates that health and well-being transcend political boundaries, and that cooperative efforts in these areas can bring together nations with differing diplomatic stances. The MOU between the United Kingdom and Taiwan symbolizes a shared commitment to addressing global health challenges and leveraging each other’s strengths to enhance health systems and promote public welfare.
Canada-Taiwan MOU: Expanding North American Ties
The MOU between Taiwan and Canada, signed in May 2023, was also a notable development in Taiwan’s international relations, particularly in the context of its North American engagements. This MOU, with its emphasis on public health cooperation, not only solidifies Taiwan’s role in global health resilience, but also exemplifies its adeptness in “soft power” diplomacy.
The MOU, signed by Taiwan Representative to Canada Harry Tseng (曾厚仁) and Canadian Trade Office in Taipei Executive Director Jim Nickel, marks the first instance of systematic cooperation between Taiwan and Canada in the field of public health. The initiative underscored the two countries’ shared commitment to enhancing resilience in response to public health incidents. By establishing this formal framework, Taiwan and Canada are poised to address a range of health challenges effectively, enhancing the well-being of both their populations.
This MOU is a testament to the growing partnership between Taiwan and Canada. It is a result of cross-departmental efforts and signifies a mutual recognition of the importance of health cooperation. The MOU is not just an agreement on paper; it is a concrete step toward bolstering the bilateral relationship, reflecting a deepening of ties that goes beyond traditional diplomacy.
The MOU highlighted Taiwan’s growing confidence in its ability to contribute to global public health. Taiwan’s successful management of various health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic, has proven its capability in this domain. The agreement with Canada allows Taiwan to share its experiences and expertise, further establishing its role as a vital player in international health affairs.
Speaking during the MOU’s signing, Taiwan’s then-Director-General of North American Affairs Douglas Hsu (徐佑典) highlighted Taiwan’s “soft power and warm power,” emphasizing the country’s growing appeal as a partner in diverse fields, including health, economics, and trade. The MOU with Canada is part of a broader strategy that Taiwan is employing to enhance its global presence through non-traditional means of diplomacy. This approach has been successful in attracting like-minded partners who seek cooperation with Taiwan, not only in public health but also in various economic sectors.
These successes have not been limited to the national level. For instance, British Columbia (BC) has announced plans to establish a Trade and Investment Representative (TIR) office in Taiwan. This move, driven by the recognition of Taiwan as a key market for export growth, is indicative of the increasing economic ties between Canadian provinces and Taiwan. It signals a growing awareness of Taiwan’s importance in the global supply chain and its competitive edge in various sectors, including agriculture, clean energy, technology, forestry, manufacturing, information and communications, and biotechnology.
The increasing interest from US states and Canadian provinces in setting up offices in Taiwan further underscores the region’s growing recognition of Taiwan’s economic and trade potential. Already, Arizona, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Virginia have established trade offices in Taiwan, a trend which is likely to continue. This growing interest from North American entities not only boosts Taiwan’s economic prospects, but also enhances its international stature.
Taiwan’s Global Health Contributions
Taiwan’s advances in healthcare and medical technology position it as a potential leader in global health. Its healthcare system is renowned for its efficiency and innovation, making it an ideal model for countries looking to reform and modernize their health sectors. Taiwan’s expertise in digital health, telemedicine, and health technology can contribute significantly to global health initiatives, particularly in developing countries.
Moreover, Taiwan’s experience in managing public health crises, evident during the 2004 SARS epidemic and the COVID-19 pandemic, provides valuable lessons for global health governance. Taiwan’s proactive and transparent approach to these crises, along with its robust public health infrastructure, are models that many countries can learn from.
Taiwan’s strategy of using health diplomacy to navigate its complex political landscape is a masterstroke in international relations. By focusing on a universally relevant issue like health, Taiwan can engage with a wider range of countries, including those that might otherwise be constrained by diplomatic ties with China. Health diplomacy allows Taiwan to showcase its strengths and contributions in a non-confrontational manner, facilitating international recognition and support.
The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities
While these MOUs represent significant progress, Taiwan faces ongoing challenges in its quest for greater international space. The geopolitical landscape, heavily influenced by China’s assertive foreign policy, continues to raise barriers. However, Taiwan’s continued focus on health diplomacy, combined with its technological and medical prowess, could provide a pathway to overcome these challenges.
In conclusion, Taiwan’s recent MOUs in health cooperation are not just about building diplomatic relations; they are about asserting Taiwan’s role in the global health arena. By making itself known and relevant as a leader in the health sector, Taiwan can increase its international presence, simultaneously contributing to global health and challenging the narrative of its international isolation. In a world increasingly interconnected by health issues, Taiwan’s strategy of health diplomacy could redefine its international role, making it an indispensable player in the global health community.
The main point: Taiwan’s strategic use of health diplomacy through MOUs with the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, and Canada highlights its growing role in global health despite political challenges. These MOUs, focusing on areas like pandemic preparedness and healthcare system reconstruction, not only enhance Taiwan’s international presence, but also demonstrate its ability to contribute significantly to global health issues—thereby overcoming diplomatic barriers imposed by China’s influence, and asserting Taiwan’s importance in the global health sector.